Sperm

Sperm are the male reproductive cells found in semen. When mature and motile, they are referred to as spermatozoa (singular: spermatozoon). In humans, sperm cells ideally contain 23 chromosomes (half of a human’s genetic material) and may combine with the 23 chromosomes contained in a female’s ovum during fertilization to form a new human being.1 A…

Sex Determination and Differentiation

In humans, biological sex is determined by a specific set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are long, threadlike structures of DNA that encode for different traits in an organism. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes. These include 22 pairs of autosomes, which are the chromosomes that are the same in males and females, and one pair…