Progestin-Only Pills

The progestin-only pill, also known as the “mini-pill,” is a type of oral contraceptive or oral birth control pill. The pill contains the hormone progestin and, unlike the combination pill, does not contain estrogen. Due to the lack of estrogen, many users report feeling fewer or no side effects compared to other oral contraceptives. One…

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a painful female reproductive condition associated with chronic menstrual pain and infertility. Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue begins to grow outside of the uterus.1 This tissue is similar to the lining of the uterus.1 Although there is currently no cure for endometriosis, there are different types of treatment available that can help manage…

Mittelschmerz (Painful Ovulation)

Mittelschmerz, German for “middle pain”, is also known as painful ovulation. It is a medical condition characterized by lower abdominal pain during ovulation that occurs midway through the menstrual cycle, about two weeks prior to the menstrual period.¹ Ovulation is the process in which an ovary releases an egg, or ovum, to be fertilized by…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovary (or ovarian) syndrome, also known as PCOS, is the most common endocrine ailment affecting people with uteruses, impacting about 8-13% of adults of reproductive age and approximately 6-18% of adolescents.1 PCOS is caused by an imbalance in an individual’s androgen hormone levels. This hormonal imbalance can cause a number of issues, including difficulty…

Sex on Your Period

It is common for people to avoid engaging in sexual activities during menstruation. Menstrual blood, tampons, sanitary pads, or other menstrual products can potentially make partners feel embarrassed or uncomfortable. There are also certain religions and beliefs that during menstruation, females are “unclean.”  However, there can be benefits to having sex during menstruation and many…

Menstrual Products

The most familiar stage of a female’s menstrual cycle is the period. A period is characterized by bleeding from the vagina that lasts approximately three to seven days. Menstrual products provide feminine hygiene by collecting or absorbing blood. There are countless different methods and products that provide this hygienic benefit. The most commonly used menstrual…

Hormonal Contraceptive Methods

Hormones are important chemical messengers found in the body. In the female reproductive system, they regulate everything from libido to the menstrual cycle. Synthetic hormones can be administered to females with natural hormonal imbalances, and are used primarily as a form of fertility control.1 Hormones in the Human Body Estrogen is a hormone naturally produced…

Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure in which a female’s uterus is removed. In the United States, hysterectomies are very common, with 1 in 3 women undergoing the procedure by age 60.1 It is the second most common surgical procedure in reproductive-aged women.1 Hysterectomy rates vary in other countries, but the United States contains the…

The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is an automatic and self-regulating process during which the female body undergoes physiological and hormonal changes over the course of 24 to 42 days. This process plays an integral role in to the overall health and function of the female reproductive system and fosters the growth of fertilized ovum into developing fetuses….