Female Infertility

Disclaimer note: While both males and females can be infertile, this article focuses on female infertility, its most common causes, and treatments. For information relating to male infertility click here. Overview of Female Infertility Female infertility is defined as the inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy to term after 12 months of unprotected intercourse, or…

Douching

Douching is the practice of flushing out the inside of the vagina with water or a solution that consists of water mixed with vinegar, baking soda, or iodine. Often times the mixture comes in a bottle or bag and is paired with a tube or nozzle that can be used to direct the solution into…

An Overview of Bacterial Infections

Overview Bacterial infections result when harmful bacteria occupy and multiply inside the body and disrupt healthy function. Not all bacteria are harmful; there are many “good” bacteria needed by living organisms for normal functions. An infection occurs when unhealthy bacteria outnumber healthy bacteria.1 Bacteria thrive in warm, moist environments, which is why the genitals, eyes, mouth,…

An Overview of STIs

The Basics Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that can be spread through sexual contact such as intercourse, oral sex, kissing, or shared sex toys. Also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), these conditions are more often asymptomatic than not, which means an infected individual does not show signs of infection. To contract an STI,…

The Ovaries and the Ovum

The ovaries are the female gonads, or sex glands. These glands carry out two important functions: ovulation, and the production and secretion of sex hormones. Ovulation is the process of releasing an ovum, or egg, to prepare a female for possible implantation and consequent impregnation. Sex hormones regulate the process which dictates ovulation, known as…

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

What is it? Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a severe infection of the female reproductive organs that results from the spread of a previously existing infection. PID can be caused by a variety of infections, but it is most commonly a complication of untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because of this connection, PID is considered…

Nongonococcal Urethritis

What Is It? ​Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is a broad term describing used to describe an inflammation of the urethra. NGU is caused by the introduction of bacteria, not including gonorrhea. While NGU can be caused by several different microorganisms including Mycoplasma genitalium and adenovirus, the most common NGU-inducing pathogen is chlamydia.1 Who Is at Risk?…

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (shown above) , a bacterium that infects and parasitically lives within human cells, sometimes leading to several other disease states in both males and females.1 Chlamydia is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States, infecting approximately 2.86 million new…

Painful Intercourse

Pain or discomfort during intercourse is quite common among females and some males.  About 60% of females experience painful intercourse at least once during their lifetime. Painful intercourse can also affect males; however, it is not as common. Dyspareunia it is defined as chronic pain in the genital area either during or shortly after intercourse.1…