Parkinson’s Disease and Sexual Dysfunction

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most common motor related disorder worldwide.1-3 PD belongs to a group of motor-related conditions known as Parkinsonism4 and is characterized by a loss of dopamine producing nerve cells called dopaminergenic neurons and the development of inclusions known as “Lewy bodies” in the brain.2,4…

Diphalia (Two Penises)

What is Diphalia Diphallia (“Di” meaning two and “phallia” meaning penis) is a medical condition in which a male is born with two penises. This is an extremely rare disorder-only approximately 1000 cases of diphallia have been recorded since 1609. Diphallia occurs in one in 5.5 million males in the United States. It is a rare…

Interstitial Cystitis

Commonly referred to as painful bladder syndrome (PBS) or chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS), interstitial cystitis (IC) is a urological condition characterized by burning during urination, increased urinary frequency and urgency, blood in urine (hematuria), and discomfort or pain in the perineum, urethra, lower abdomen, and lower back.1 These symptoms are common among other urogenital conditions as…

Endometriosis

Endometriosis is a painful female reproductive condition associated with chronic menstrual pain and infertility. Endometriosis occurs when endometrial tissue begins to grow outside of the uterus.1 This tissue is similar to the lining of the uterus.1 Although there is currently no cure for endometriosis, there are different types of treatment available that can help manage…

Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial Meningitis is caused by inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.1 A host of different strains of bacteria can cause meningitis, and people are more susceptible to certain strains at certain ages.1 Oftentimes, people carry the contagious bacteria, but do not show symptoms. However, if the bacteria break…

Sex and Autism

Autism is a “spectrum disorder,” meaning that symptoms can present themselves in a wide variety of combinations, from mild to severe; for this reason autism may also often be referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorder.1 Autism initially manifests in early childhood through a child’s difficulty in communicating or interacting with others.2 Some children may also perform repetitive…

Mittelschmerz (Painful Ovulation)

Mittelschmerz, German for “middle pain”, is also known as painful ovulation. It is a medical condition characterized by lower abdominal pain during ovulation that occurs midway through the menstrual cycle, about two weeks prior to the menstrual period.¹ Ovulation is the process in which an ovary releases an egg, or ovum, to be fertilized by…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome? Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is caused by an imbalance in a female’s androgen hormone levels. This hormonal imbalance can cause a number of issues, including difficulty achieving pregnancy by creating an irregular menstrual cycle.1 During ovulation, females with PCOS do not create all the necessary hormones for their eggs to fully mature. This causes some of the…

Hydrocele (of the Testes)

A hydrocele is a fluid-filled sack that surrounds a testicle and causes swelling in the scrotum.1 A hydrocele can develop on one side of the scrotum (unilateral), or on both sides of the scrotum (bilateral). Hydroceles are common in newborns and infants, though most hydroceles go away by the time the child turns 1 year old….