Sperm

Sperm are the male reproductive cells found in semen. When mature and motile, they are referred to as spermatozoa (singular: spermatozoon). In humans, sperm cells ideally contain 23 chromosomes (half of a human’s genetic material) and may combine with the 23 chromosomes contained in a female’s ovum during fertilization to form a new human being.1 A…

Sex Determination and Differentiation

In humans, biological sex is determined by a specific set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are long, threadlike structures of DNA that encode for different traits in an organism. Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes. These include 22 pairs of autosomes, which are the chromosomes that are the same in males and females, and one pair…

Menstrual Products

The most familiar stage of a female’s menstrual cycle is the period. A period is characterized by bleeding from the vagina that lasts approximately three to seven days. Menstrual products provide feminine hygiene by collecting or absorbing blood. There are countless different methods and products that provide this hygienic benefit. The most commonly used menstrual…

The Sexual Response Cycle

The sexual response cycle refers to a series of physical and emotional phases that occur when an individual becomes aroused or engages in sexually stimulating activities. Sexual stimulation during such activities is not limited to penile-vaginal intercourse. The full sexual response cycle can be experienced during masturbation, manual stimulation by one’s partner, oral sex, or fantasy.  A comprehensive knowledge and understanding…

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis is the production and development of sperm.  This process begins at puberty and continues for the remainder of a male’s life.  The sperm and the egg, which are the male and female gametes, meet during fertilization.  Both gametes are haploid cells; these cells contain 23 unpaired chromosomes, which is half of the human genetic…

The Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is an automatic and self-regulating process during which the female body undergoes physiological and hormonal changes over the course of 24 to 42 days. This process plays an integral role in to the overall health and function of the female reproductive system and fosters the growth of fertilized ovum into developing fetuses….

The Clitoris

The clitoris is a female sexual organ located at the top part of the vulva, or external female genitalia. The clitoris is an erogenous, highly sensitive zone that contains more nerve endings than any other body part. During sexual arousal, the clitoris becomes larger and firmer due to erection. Although stimulation of the clitoris is…

The G-Spot

What is the G-Spot?      The G-spot, more formally known as the Grafenberg Spot, is named after the German gynecologist, Ernst Grafenberg, and is an erogenous area in the female vagina. When the G-spot is properly stimulated, some females may experience sexual arousal that can lead to orgasm. Where is the G-Spot? The G-spot is…

Overview of the Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system, also known as the female genital system, is made up of external and internal sex organs.  These sex organs and their complex functions work together to provide the female body sexual pleasure and reproductive abilities.  This article offers an overview of the female sex organs and their functions beginning with external…