Biological Steps to Becoming Pregnant

… see a fertility specialist, such as a reproductive endocrinologist, to help treat potential fertility problems.

In general terms, the journey to pregnancy begins when a male’s sperm fertilizes a female’s egg. This fertilization can happen in a variety of different ways, such as the following:

Unprotected vaginal intercourse, during which a male ejaculates …

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)

… biology of infertility before reading this article, check out our articles on Male Infertility and Female Infertility.

Table of Contents

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)Sperm, Egg, and Embryo DonationPreparing for ARTSurrogate or Gestational CarrierGoing Through Infertility TreatmentConcluding Remarks
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

The most common form of ART is known as in …

Effects of Drugs Taken During Pregnancy

Disclaimer: We acknowledge that not all pregnant females will remain the mother of the child and that not all mothers may have biologically given birth to their child. In this article, we use the term “mother” for the sake of simplicity and consistency.

Expecting mothers and fathers often feel worried about whether or not their …

An Overview of Birth Control

Table of Contents

What Is Birth Control?A Brief History of Birth ControlTypes of Birth ControlNatural Methods of Birth ControlSurgical Methods of Birth ControlOther Methods of Birth ControlEmergency Measures
What Is Birth Control?
The term “birth control” refers to a broad spectrum of methods that partners engaging in sexual activity use to prevent pregnancy. The …

Seminal Fluid Hypersensitivity

Seminal Fluid Hypersensitivity, otherwise known as semen allergy, is a rare allergic reactions to the proteins within a male’s semen that affects approximately 20,000 to 40,000 females in the United States alone and an unknown number of males. While females have reported most cases of seminal fluid hypersensitivity, it is possible …

Sex Myth Busters

… loose”Myth #3 – “Sexual pleasure is dependent on the size of a male’s penis”Myth #4 – “Laptop computers and cellular devices can lower a male’s sperm count”Myth #5 – “Circumcised penises are less sensitive”Myth #6– “There is something wrong if a male can’t last a long time before ejaculating”Myth #7 …

Male Contraception

In recent decades, development of reliable and reversible methods of female contraception greatly expanded family planning options available to females. Male contraceptive development, however, has been greatly overlooked.

Currently, male condoms and vasectomies are the only forms of reliable male contraception effective at preventing pregnancy for a female partner (and, in the case of latex …

Cervical Cap

The cervical cap or contraceptive cap is a barrier method of birth control. It is a small silicone cup that is inserted into the vagina in order to prevent pregnancy. A suction mechanism allows the cap to sit over the cervix, blocking sperm from entering the uterus and preventing fertilization. For people with vaginas who …


The diaphragm, a shallow silicone cap, is a barrier method of birth control for people with vulvas. Inserted deep within the vagina, the diaphragm creates a seal against the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.1 Spermicidal foam, cream, or jelly is applied onto the diaphragm before insertion to immobilize and kill sperm