Vagina

Overview The vagina is a stretchable muscular cavity lined with mucous membranes in the female reproductive system that extends from the uterus (womb) to the vaginal opening. The cervix of the uterus forms the interior end of the vagina, while the vulva–or the external parts of the female genitalia–and labia (singular: labium) form the exterior…

Anatomy Diagrams

These diagrams are to be used for the purpose of education. Within a classroom setting, teachers can either use the simplified depictions of the reproductive system as a viewable diagram to teach anatomy, or as an interactive learning tool. Each diagram includes a simplified drawing of the general organs, one with labeled boxes, and one…

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that affects the female reproductive system. It generally begins in one of the two ovaries on either sides of the uterus and can often remain undetected for most of the beginning stages. Ovarian cancer is usually identified once it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the pelvic…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome? Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is caused by an imbalance in a female’s androgen hormone levels. This hormonal imbalance can cause a number of issues, including difficulty achieving pregnancy by creating an irregular menstrual cycle.1 During ovulation, females with PCOS do not create all the necessary hormones for their eggs to fully mature. This causes some of the…

Hormonal Contraceptive Methods

Hormones are important chemical messengers found in the body. In the female reproductive system, they regulate everything from libido to the menstrual cycle. Synthetic hormones can be administered to females with natural hormonal imbalances, and are used primarily as a form of fertility control.1 Hormones in the Human Body Estrogen is a hormone naturally produced…

Hysterectomy

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure in which a female’s uterus is removed. In the United States, hysterectomies are very common, with 1 in 3 women undergoing the procedure by age 60.1 It is the second most common surgical procedure in reproductive-aged women.1 Hysterectomy rates vary in other countries, but the United States contains the…

The Ovaries and the Ovum

The ovaries are the female gonads, or sex glands. These glands carry out two important functions: ovulation, and the production and secretion of sex hormones. Ovulation is the process of releasing an ovum, or egg, to prepare a female for possible implantation and consequent impregnation. Sex hormones regulate the process which dictates ovulation, known as…

Miscarriage

Disclaimer: Throughout this article we will be using the term “expectant mother” to refer to a pregnant female, although we acknowledge that not all pregnant females will become mothers. Some may choose to serve as surrogates, or to give their babies up for adoption by couples who wish to become parents. Further, we will be…